Monday, October 29, 2012
Expunging the Ghost of Resource Curse from Africa: Institutional capacity building, Transparency and Accountability in Oil and Gas Governance as Vehicles of Sustainable Development for Uganda.
This brief seeks to critically examine whether Uganda will benefit from the exploitation of Oil and Gas resources. The discovery of such a vital resource has fuelled the hope of accelerated economic growth, and correspondingly, prosperity for the country. Such expectations can be traced in President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni’s assertion on 9th October, 2012 during the Independence jubilee speech that; “Uganda will in the next 50 years turn into a ‘first World’ Country.’’ Unfortunately, as some case studies from many resource-rich countries have shown, natural resources like Oil and Gas can be more of a curse than a blessing if mismanaged, and consequently, impede development instead of being a boom to the economy. In attempting to analyze this phenomenon in the Ugandan context, I will highlight the prospects and challenges facing the Oil and Sector Governance/Management in Uganda, and give some suggested alternative policy reforms and recommendations that can be helpful to enable Uganda avoid the oil curse and its negative consequences. For purposes of discussion, this paper will mainly center on the aspects of prudent resource management, capacity building, transparency and accountability as the key ingredients to sustainable and equitable resource exploitation and development. Introduction Oil can be defined as crude petroleum oil and other hydrocarbons which are produced at the wellhead in liquid form and the liquid hydrocarbons known as distillate or condensate recovered or extracted from gas, other than gas produced in association with oil and commonly known as casing head gas. In some instances, the term oil is defined so as to include natural gas. Country profile. The Republic of Uganda is a small land locked country in East Africa sandwiched between Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the South Sudan. She enjoys membership to the East African Community (EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) as regional bodies, and the African Union (AU) as a Continental body. History and Development of Oil & Gas in Uganda The hunt for oil in Uganda dates back to the early 1920s, when a British geologist named E.J. Wayland documented the presence of hydrocarbons in the Albertine Graben. This initial discovery was followed by preliminary well-drilling in 1938, but was halted in the wake of World War II and its aftermath. (The most that was done in the 1940s and 50s was the drilling of a few shallow wells for stratographic purposes.) In the years following independence, the political turmoil that engulfed Uganda rendered the pursuit of oil dormant until the 1980s, when the country acquired aeromagnetic data across the entire Graben region. The aeromagnetic surveys, which were taken between 1983 and 1992, produced a ray of hope. They identified five sedimentary basins in the country, not only in the Albertine Graben, but also in Lake Kyoga, Hoima, Lake Wamala, and Moroto-Kadam. Geologists in Uganda’s Petroleum Exploration and Production Department engaged in extensive subsequent ground surveys, which revealed the Albertine Graben as the basin most primed for oil exploitation. The Albertine Graben is located in western Uganda, covering the districts of Masindi, Kibale, and Hoima. The Graben, which forms the northernmost part of the western arm of the East African Rift Valley, is situated along the Ugandan-Congolese border, and stretches northward to Uganda’s border with South Sudan. Over the past decade, the Ugandan government has signed contracts with a number of international companies to engage in preliminary exploration and testing. The most visible of these firms is Tullow Oil, which recently consolidated its hold over a handful of oil-rich concessionary blocks in the Graben. In March 2011, Tullow signed contracts with Total S.A. of France and CNOOC Ltd. of China, each of which acquired a one-third interest in exploration areas 1, 2, and 3A. While oil production is still a couple years away, at peak capacity the combined areas are expected to produce approximately 200,000 barrels of oil per day. Among the more lucrative oil fields in the Graben are the Maputa and Waraga, which have an estimated 100 to 400 million barrels of oil, the Giraffe 1, which contain at least 400 million barrels, and the Kingfisher in Hoima, which has approximately 500 million barrels of oil. The Legal, Administrative and Policy Framework on Oil and Gas in Uganda Constitution of Uganda (1995) as amended Article 244 of the Constitution provides that parliament shall enact laws regulating the exploitation and development of minerals and that such exploitation shall take into account the interests of individual land owners, local governments, and the central government. The constitution further states that all minerals are held by the government on behalf of the people of Uganda thus establishing the “public trust doctrine” Petroleum Laws and Policies On 30th January 2008, the cabinet approved the country’s National Oil and Gas Policy. This was intended to provide guidelines on the development of Uganda’s emerging oil and gas industry following the discovery of commercial prospects. The policy was designed to provide a roadmap for future petroleum legislation, while accounting for the various acts and regulations that provide the legal framework for the development and exploitation of oil and gas. In 2010, the Ugandan Parliament tabled the Petroleum (Exploration, Development, Production and Value Addition) Bill, 2010, which, once passed, will provide the principal legal framework governing the oil and gas sector. Other benchmarks can be found in the following existing and proposed Policies, Laws and regulations. The Oil and Gas Revenue Management Policy, 2012, The National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008, Petroleum Exploration and Production Act 1993, Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Regulations, 1993, Uganda Mining Act 2003, Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill, 2012, Petroleum (Refining, Gas Processing and Conversion, Transportation and Storage) Bill, 2012, Public Finance Bill, 2012 Environmental Laws and Policies The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) is a semi-autonomous institution, established in 1995 under the National Environment Act CAP 153 as the principal agency in Uganda charged with the responsibility of coordinating, monitoring, regulating, and supervising environmental management in the country. NEMA advises various government agencies on environmental issues, and spearheads the development of environmental policies, laws, regulations, standards, and guidelines. Uganda has numerous laws designed to protect the environment. Among the more central legislation includes the following: The National Environment Act, The National Environment Management Policy for Uganda, The National Environment (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations, The National Environment (Waste Management) Regulations, The National Environment (Audit) Regulations Regulatory Bodies The promotion and regulation of the oil and gas sector was initially undertaken by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development through the Petroleum Exploration and Production Department (PEPD). Under the National Oil and Gas Policy, the Ministry will handle the policy aspects, while regulatory and commercial aspects will be handled by Petroleum Authority of Uganda (PAU) and the Uganda National Oil Company, respectively. The discovery of oil offers tremendous opportunities for Uganda. It also poses several risks if the country succumbs to what some analysts call the “oil curse” – or the diversion of revenues for development through mismanagement and corruption. Whereas oil and gas resources can be a huge blessing, in most instances, especially on the African continent, they have turned out to be the “Devil’s excitement.” Sustainable development has entered the lexicon of the oil and gas industry’s annual reports, trade literature, conference meetings and business councils, much as it swept through the environmental policy and economic development literature and communities over the last two decades. This full sweep reflects both the painful legacy of pollution and poverty too often left by the extractive industries in developing countries in the past and a beam of light pointing to a brighter future. Current Challenges to Oil and Gas Governance in Uganda Lack of transparency in the oil and Gas sector. The Government of the Republic of Uganda continues to hide the Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) on flimsy grounds of “national security” and “trade secrets”. This not only causes suspicion and speculation of bad deals among the public, but also denies vital and accurate information to the public. Growing ethnic nationalism . Ethnic nationalism per se is not a bad thing, but it becomes an issue when some members prefer tribal interests over national goals. The Ugandan government seems to have mishandled the issue of what stakes will go to Bunyoro Kingdom since the oil resource is in their territory. Consequently, we have seen the traditional king of Bunyoro petitioning the National Parliament to put a case for Bunyoro’s claims. Endemic and systemic corruption has eroded public trust in the government. There have been claims that some senior ministers in Government received bribes from oil companies. Though these remain unsubstantiated allegations, they seemed to appeal to public sentiments drawing from past experiences in the CHOGM and Temangalo corruption allegations. This has greatly contributed to growing skepticism whether the oil money will be used for public benefit. This is made worse by the government’s failure to subscribe to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. Inadequate well-trained local manpower. Due to the education gap, and lack of a proper and strong science and technology-based education system, Ugandans have not benefited much from the jobs available. The oil companies doing the exploration, and drilling are all foreign and come with expatriate staff that are well versed with the technical aspects of oil and gas industry. This skills gap confines Ugandans to small tasks that are mainly labour intensive. Cross-border conflict is another big challenge. Uganda’s oil reserves are off-shore and the Albertine Lake is shared between Uganda and Congo. Congo is perennially in conflict and a very highly militarized zone. This conflict can hamper production once it spills over. Reports have continuously indicated that Congo is a failed State incapable of providing security to its nationals, and the presence of roaming militia groups. Weak Legislative framework. Uganda currently, is in the process of law reform to come up with better and more comprehensive Laws to govern the oil and gas sector. However, some analysts have observed that Uganda’s existing and draft oil laws are inadequate and risk undermining prospects for the country’s future development. The government had promised to table the Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill 2012 (the Upstream Bill) and the Petroleum (Refining, Gas Processing and Conversion Transportation and Storage) Bill, 2012 (the Mid-stream Bill). However, there are growing concerns that the Oil Revenue Management Bill, which was to lay out how the government uses money from oil sales has been abandoned. This is likely to jeopardize the effort of those seeking accountability from Government. Uninformed citizenry. Uganda ranks high among countries with the highest illiteracy levels. This has been a tragedy for the country since the people have not formed that level of critical thinking and reflection on national concerns and public policy. This makes them susceptible to gullibility and manipulation from the small political elite group that commands power and authority. There is also lack of proper demand for accountability from leaders and those who hold public resources in trust for the nation. Weak institutional capacity. Just like in the previous Act, there is no provision in the new Bills requiring parliament to give approval to oil contracts. While the National Gas and Oil Policy provides for an independent institution, the Petroleum Authority (with powers to regulate exploration, development and production, processing, transportation and storage of petroleum and gas in Uganda), the Minister responsible for petroleum activities has power to give directions in writing to the authority with respect to the policy to be observed and implemented, and the Authority must comply with those directions. The Minister also appoints members of the board of directors among whom he or she can appoint a chairperson; yet it is the same board that is mandated to oversee the operations of the authority. It further appears that there is no clear separation of roles and responsibilities between the board and the authority, because the board can, by instrument, delegate to an officer of the Petroleum Authority any of the powers, duties or functions of the board. There is no clear relationship between the office of the commissioners and the Petroleum Authority and the Ministry, and that by doing this, the Bill sets a risk that the system could create unnecessary duplication or bureaucratic delays, and multiply the potential for bureaucratic competition, corruption or mismanagement. “Parliament is remarkably absent across the different sections on institutional arrangements, licensing, development and production. Weak tax collection systems are another big challenge. Currently, a series of tax disputes are swirling around Uganda’s burgeoning oil sector, the results of which will have immense implications for any future government revenue, and, potentially, even the country’s investment climate. Given these disputes, the Government of Uganda is currently locked in a row with Heritage Oil over the legitimacy of the capital gains tax. In May 2011, arbitration commenced in London to resolve the dispute. This leads to extra public expense and delay any future licensing rounds for oil exploration in the country. Clampdown on human rights and freedoms. There is a renewed effort to clampdown human rights and peoples freedoms. This seems to be a reactionary move aimed at curtailing dissent from dissidents taking part in movements like “walk-to-work”. Such anti-human rights sentiments can be traced in proposed Laws like the Public Order Management Bill . The current draft gives overly broad discretionary power to the Ugandan Police to permit or disallow any “public meeting.” The bill defines such meetings as any gathering of more than three people in any public place where, for example, the “failure of any government, political party, or political organisation” is discussed. In all instances, organizers of such gatherings would be required to inform police in advance that a gathering is to take place, or face criminal sanction. Any spontaneous peaceful demonstration of more than three people would be a criminal act. This would even affect public gatherings meant to question the management of oil proceeds. Environmental degradation. Environmental management in Uganda is aimed at achieving National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, that promote sustainable development and public awareness of the need to manage land, air, and water resources in a balanced and sustainable manner for the present and future generations. The high overlap between ecologically sensitive and biodiversity rich areas and the occurrence of exploitable hydrocarbons in the Albertine Graben poses a particular challenge for oil exploration and development in Uganda. The Albertine Graben is the most species rich eco-region for vertebrates in Africa and contains 39% of Africa’s mammal species, 51% of its bird species, 19% of its amphibian species and 14% of its plant and reptile species. On the other hand, the rate of biodiversity loss in Uganda is high and was calculated in 2004 to be 10-11% per decade or about 0.8% annually. The principle threats to biodiversity in Uganda persist including habitat loss, modification and alteration along with unsustainable harvesting, pollution as well as introduction of alien species. Dutch Disease. The economy is likely to promote the activities in the petroleum sector and boost the respective economic linkages. This may disorient the economy into a single commodity economy. Efforts to promote and maintain interventions in other sectors of the economy and other domestic revenue sources must be addressed. Tax evasion: This is a major challenge to revenue collection. Uganda’s fiscal system is a hybrid type consisting of four main features, namely Royalty, Production (Profit Oil) Sharing, State Participation and Corporate Income Tax. For the state to adequately benefit from produced oil and gas, each aspect of the fiscal system requires stringent administration. Fluctuations in the price of oil: Need for conservative estimates on price of oil in national budget assumptions. It is important to have a feature in the PSA to deal with extremely high oil prices, to avoid the reduction of governments take as oil prices increase (i.e., a regressive fiscal system). The PSA’s should allow revisions to be made to have a price-based royalty, or a royalty based on a combination of production volumes and price. Windows of New Hope A growing and more visible civil society in Uganda is a right step in the right direction. The Civil Society Coalition for Oil (CSCO) is a network of more than 40 civil society organizations that aim “to maximize the benefits to the people of Uganda from oil and gas discoveries by promoting social, economic and environmental sustainability in exploration and production activities.” The coalition was formed in February, 2008 when a number of NGOs convened to prepare comments on environmental impact assessments related to oil exploration and a proposed ‘early production scheme’ in the Kaiso-Tonya valley. Since then, CSCO has met frequently with oil companies and government departments to present a civil society perspective on oil and gas development. It has hosted numerous forums to share knowledge and promote discussion around oil issues, and has held training and capacity building workshops for member organizations and for community groups in areas of the country directly affected by oil exploration. In 2010, in association with UK-based NGO, PLATFORM, the coalition published a strong critique of production sharing agreements that the government of Uganda had signed with international oil companies. This influential document received wide attention and stimulated demands for greater transparency in the oil sector. In March, 2012, CSCO convened, together with the Parliamentary Forum on Climate Change, a meeting of MPs, activists and researchers to discuss two petroleum bills that had been tabled in parliament and passed to the parliamentary Natural Resources Committee for review. MPs who sit on the committee had the opportunity to hear and discuss analysis of the bills presented by CSCO members and partners. Influence of Social media cannot be underestimated. Oil and gas industry professionals are quickly realizing that Facebook and Twitter are not just for millennials or the consumer market. Respondents to a recent Microsoft and Accenture survey of oil and gas professionals stated that these social media tools can play a vital role in enhancing collaboration within critical oilfield initiatives, including project management, sourcing scarce resources and sharing health and safety advisories. These professionals also believe that new social media technologies can help stem the flow of intellectual knowledge from workers who are quickly hitting retirement age. Uganda is experiencing a deep penetration of this new mode of communication and information access/sharing. If well incorporated in oil revenue management in the next few decades, there will be easy information access, accountability from all the players and ease in gathering complaints, suggestion and feedback from the public. A shift towards a pro-people Parliament. The ninth Parliament has been credited by some political observers as a people-centered parliament in its oversight role unlike its predecessors which were mere rubberstamps for the executive arm of Government. According to the parliament watch bulletin report, a citizen –assessment of the first year of the 9th parliament released on Friday in Kampala by the Uganda governance monitoring group, (UGMP) the 9th parliament was rated high in terms of legislation and oversight scoring 60 percent. It was also highlighted that in its first session, the 9th parliament was very instrumental in protecting national interests such as the demand for transparency in the management of oil and other extractive resources in Uganda. Oil education and public sensitization programs through efforts of agencies like Africa Institute for Energy Governance (AFIEGO). This will in the long run help to build capacity of the people to participate in the making and implementation of energy policies to ensure equity and justice in development. An alert media is also a blessing. An active, knowledgeable press plays a critical role in helping the public and parliaments to engage in governance issues, enabling them to hold government and companies more accountable. However, in many resource-rich countries, journalists lack the information and skills to report and write in depth on oil, gas and mining. Recognizing these challenges, there have been media training programs within the fraternity in Ghana and Uganda to promote effective, consistent media oversight of oil, gas and mining. The programs seek to increase the number and quality of print, television and radio stories, and develop training tools that are self-sustaining in these countries and replicable in others. There is also new hope in the will to enact new legislation to cover the existing gaps in the sector. This has been demonstrated by the changes made in the 2010 Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill and most of the recommendations by Civil Society Organizations on such 2010 Bill have been incorporated into the 2012 Bills. For example, the 2010 Bill has since been split into two Bills: (i) The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill 2012 (Bill No. 1) for upstream petroleum activities and (ii) The Petroleum (Refining, Gas Processing and Conversion, Transportation and Storage) Bill 2012 (Bill No. 2) for midstream petroleum activities. These are efforts necessary to realize a sober legal framework for the oil and gas industry. Training of staff through schemes like the Tullow Oil scholarship. The Tullow scholarship scheme was established to build capacity of Ugandan nationals to support and participate in the early phases of oil production. The post-graduate studies focus on disciplines in petroleum geosciences, petroleum geology, structural geology, sedimentology and other petroleum related courses. "This whole scheme is about developing potential - the potential that Tullow sees around it in Africa every day. Developing local talent for the oil industry makes good business sense for us, and it makes sense for oil producing countries to develop talent beyond oil. This is a great opportunity for anyone who has thought about this and wants to make a real contribution to the future of their country." Aidan Heavey, CEO of Tullow Oil Plc Recommendations and Alternative policy suggestions I would advocate for the release of the Production Sharing Agreements into the public domain, and more transparency within the sector/industry. Only the transparency of commercial, financial, and environmental matters can permit the public to judge the efficacy and soundness of these agreements. The tendency to keep such vital contracts secret prevents the country from developing a coherent functioning legal system and also sets a bad precedent for future contracts as it would almost inevitably serve as a model for companies in other sectors. I also agree with Mr. Mr Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile that Good public policy decisions are more likely to be taken and implemented if they are a product of well-informed public policy debates; debates which involve public officials, the academic community, the business sector and civil society. Establish oil trust funds. This is particularly attractive in the wake of the past high and volatile oil prices and new oil discoveries. Some objectives of oil trust funds have been to combat commodity price volatility, currency appreciation, inflation, and dependency on oil revenues. Other objectives have included a desire to pay for social and economic development, provide financial resources for future generations, and provide an incentive for prudent financial management by putting revenue away for later use. Create stabilization funds managed by the Central Bank. This is a percentage of income that is set aside for national financial reserves and national emergencies. It may be used to stabilize a country’s economy during particularly volatile periods. Stabilization funds have also been used to spur development in non-oil sectors of a country’s economy. Capacity building in the sector. The importance of identifying and producing the types of technical skills required by the oil industry and the rest of the economy cannot be underestimated. National curricula need to be revisited in light of the oil discovery. The importance of bridging research and policy for the oil sector should be emphasized. Investing in other sectors especially those where Uganda enjoys competitive advantage, for instance Agriculture and Tourism. I would emphatically advocate for increased funding of such sectors so as to complement the oil and gas sector, and widen the export base. Oil is finite and cannot accommodate each and everyone in the country. There is need for sustained food production and engagement of all the other vital sectors so as to curtail the Dutch disease. Conclusion By and large, Oil production offers great economic advantages to Uganda-both directly and indirectly, through the windfall of the numerous economies of scale that accrue from the sector. However, for the resource to be useful and beneficial in a sustainable manner, there is need for sober planning and prudent financial management. This will require great effort from all the various stake holders in the public sector, private sector, civil society, media, local communities, and a well-informed citizenry that can hold those in positions of responsibility accountable so as to ensure proper and equitable management of the proceeds from oil and gas. The government should not only promote activities in the petroleum sector as this may disorient the economy into a single commodity economy. Efforts to promote and maintain interventions in other sectors of the economy and other domestic revenue sources must also be addressed. As a catalyst of economic growth, the country needs a well-articulated national development agenda that is not only well-known and deeply ingrained on the heart of government, but also citizens as well. Selected References Primary Sources National Legislature Constitution of Uganda, 1995 (as amended) Petroleum Exploration and Production Act 1993 Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Regulations, 1993 Uganda Mining Act 2003 National Policies National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008 Petroleum Exploration and Production Act 1993 Bills of Parliament Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Bill, 2012 Petroleum (Refining, Gas Processing, Conversion, Transportation and Storage) Bill, 2012 Public Finance Bill, 2012 Secondary sources Text books A Manual of UK Oil and Gas Law, 109-110 (1977) Articles Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment; UNDERSTANDING THE TAX DISPUTE: HERITAGE, TULLOW, AND THE GOVERNMENT OF UGANDA (Authored by Angelo Izama and Hashim Wasswa Mulangwa) Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile: Oil revenue management, Oil Revenue Management Seminar, Kampala, 27 February 2012. Jacqueline Lang Weaver; Sustainable Development in the Petroleum Sector, IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 47, The World Conservation Union (2003) Jenik Radon; How to negotiate the “right” petroleum contract (UNDP Discussion Paper No.6) Muhwezi, et.al, (2009). Crafting an Oil Revenue-Sharing Mechanism for Uganda: A Comparative Analysis, ACODE Policy Research Series, No. 30, 2009. Kampala. Internet sources http://www.independent.co.ug/cover-story/5427-parliament-to-pass-weak-laws-on-oil (last visited 22nd October, 2012) http://www.observer.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19310:view-point-bunyoro-wont-be-silenced-on-oil&catid=36:letters&Itemid=62 (last visited 20th October, 2012) www.oilinuganda.org/civil-society-coalition-for-oil (last accessed 20th October, 2012) www.tullowoil.com (last visited 27th October, 2012) N.D Laws 1953, Ch.227 3(4), N.D Century Code 38-08-02(8) (2d Repl. Vol. 1980) A Manual of UK Oil and Gas Law, 109-110 (1977) http://www.acode-u.org/ugandaoil.html The policy goal is to use the country’s oil and Gas resources to contribute to early achievement of poverty eradication and create lasting value to society A term adopted from Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo, Venezuelan politician and one of the founders of OPEC. Jacqueline Lang Weaver; Sustainable Development in the Petroleum Sector, IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 47, The World Conservation Union (2003) View Point: Bunyoro won’t be silenced on oil (http://www.observer.ug/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=19310:view-point-bunyoro-wont-be-silenced-on-oil&catid=36:letters&Itemid=62) A series of documents tabled before the floor of Parliament by Hon. Gerald Karuhanga and others showing bank transfers of large amounts of money to two ministers: Sam Kutesa of Foreign Affairs and Hillary Onek, then of Energy and Mineral Development. According to the documents, Kutesa had been paid by Tullow Oil 17m Euro under a company called East African Development Limited registered (EADL) in Nairobi. Onek had been paid 6.0m Euro to his account with the Emirates Bank in Dubai. It is ironic that subscription to the ETI is provided for under Objective 6 of the National Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008 http://www.independent.co.ug/cover-story/5427-parliament-to-pass-weak-laws-on-oil International Alert; Oil and Gas Laws in Uganda: A Legislators’ Guide (May 2011report) Advocates Coalition for Development and Environment; UNDERSTANDING THE TAX DISPUTE: HERITAGE, TULLOW, AND THE GOVERNMENT OF UGANDA (Authored by Angelo Izama and Hashim Wasswa Mulangwa) For instance clause 14 of the POMB gives the minister powers to declare some places unfit for public meetings of more than 25 people. This clause seeks to reinstate the position of S. 32 of the Police Act which was ruled unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court in Muwanga Kivumbi Vs A. G. Section. 32 gave powers to the Inspector General of Police to prohibit a public meeting if he/she thought it was necessary for public safety. Court was of the view that this was a limitation on the rights to freedoms of assembly and association. Human Rights Watch; Uganda: Draft Public Order Law Would Violate Rights The 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. www.oilinuganda.org/civil-society-coalition-for-oil Chris Van Dyke and Craig Hodges, Facebook for the Enterprise: the oil and gas industry goes social (Microsoft) New Vision; ‘’Ninth Parliament better than previous – report’’ Publish Date: Aug 27, 2012 “The media has a key role to play in governance issues, but they sometimes report in a way that creates an impression that there is anarchy in Uganda as far as oil is concerned. I implore the media to invest time and money to understand the intricacies of the oil industry, to avoid misinforming the public.” Francis Kamulegeya, Senior Country Partner at Price Waterhouse Coopers (www.oilinuganda.org) www.tullowoil.com Jenik Radon; How to negotiate the “right” petroleum contract (UNDP Discussion Paper No. 6) Governor of the Bank of Uganda Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile: Oil revenue management, Oil Revenue Management Seminar, Kampala, 27 February 2012. Muhwezi, et.al, (2009). Crafting an Oil Revenue-Sharing Mechanism for Uganda: A Comparative Analysis. ACODE Policy Research Series, No. 30, 2009. Kampala. Pg. 40 Supra, note 24